China as a country has always been at the forefront of the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction and formulated fiduciary activities both at the national and international levels to halt the non-proliferation campaign. Furthermore, China remains committed to promoting the sound and sustainable development of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and upholding the authority of international nuclear non-proliferation regimes. At the 76th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) last year, China adopted and sponsored a resolution promoting international cooperation in peaceful uses to harness international security. The resolution aims to initiate an inclusive and just dialogue process within the framework of the UNGA and fully assess the current state of challenges to peaceful use and collective international cooperation. Also, it is aimed at affirming and upholding the existing international treaty organizations in fulfilling related international obligations.
In the same regard, the major multilateral export control regimes, which include the NSG, the Wassenaar Arrangement (WA), the Australia Group (AG), and the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), have all played critical roles in the nonproliferation processes. Many countries value and agree on these informal treaties, with China at the forefront of mitigating non-proliferation and improving the security dynamics envisioned by these regimes.
In the past, states have transformed the existing nonprofit missions related to export control regimes into a new Coordinating Committee (COCOM) for multilateral export controls, the so called COCOM. COCOM was an initiative by the US and its allies at the end of World War II. The main aim was to legalize and put a check on the export and import of sensitive technologies. These measures not only postulate captures among cultures and demand the foundation of international cooperation on nonprofit proliferation, but also deepen the scientific and technological gap between the developed and the developing countries.
Also, in the rapid development of emerging technologies and the scope for more effective governance in the context of security in 2015, China formulated a code of conduct for scientists on biosecurity and has worked with Pakistan and other countries to promote multilateral discussions. In July 2021, Chinese scientists, together with their international counterparts began changing codes of conduct for scientists based on the above initiative, which was formally endorsed by the Inter Academy Partnership (IAP) in the realm of biosecurity. This productive step of changing biosecurity guidelines out of the cage responsibly for scientific research provides a useful reference for reducing biosecurity risks and promoting bioscience and related high-tech technologies. Thus, the peaceful use of bio technology is instrumental for the improvement in global public health.
Furthermore, with the changing political environment around the world, the international community could find solutions to the new problems through cooperation within security and development sectors. In 2020, China put forward a Global Data Security Initiative, which illustrated China’s proposed idea on important issues such as protecting data security, and promoting the secure and free flow of data across borders. This initiative by China provides reference for countries to seize the digital opportunities for cooperation and development.
Meanwhile, in the field of international cooperation, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are integrating resources and enhancing efficiencies through inter sectoral and cross organizational partnerships. For example, nuclear technology is widely in use in health care, food and agriculture, and other fields play an important role in promoting sustainable development and wellbeing of the masses.
Furthermore, the rise of confrontation and power politics have seriously endangered world peace and security. Against this backdrop, Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward a global security initiative (GSI) this year, which points out the need to breach the peace deficit and solve the global security dilemma. Regardless of the criticism levelled at GSI, China is laying the groundwork and demonstrating its willingness to collaborate with all parties to deliver security initiatives and deepen global cooperation.
As global agreement on the importance of peace grows, developing countries have a stronger desire for closer international cooperation, and their needs have become more diverse. The input of funds and human resources from assistance providers has steadily increased. There is a need for useful discussions by the parties to carry out discussions on important issues such as the relationship between dual use and nonproliferation. Also, the states must keep up with the United Nations Security Resolutions (UNSCR’s) and honour the multilateral export control regimes for sustainable progress.
In conclusion, China as a country strives to continuously work toward a more just and peaceful world while lowering the security concerns created by current international conditions. On the other side, some countries water down the concept of national security and create ideological divisions in order to further their political goals. In order to meet its goals and rise peacefully, China is using a variety of strategies to combat the politicization and weaponization of non-profit organizations and the technology sector. Also, China is still dedicated to advancing the NSG’s healthy and sustainable growth and defending the legitimacy of global nuclear non-proliferation regimes.