Unveiling the Ethical Paradox: Human Oversight in the Age of Autonomous Weapons

“An algorithm must not be in full control of decisions which involve killing or harming humans.”

With these resolute words spoken by the Egyptian Representative at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on 1st November 2023, the first-ever resolution was put forward on autonomous weapons, underscoring the pressing need for the international community to confront the challenges and ethical concerns posed by them.

The product of a decade-long international discourse and collaboration, this resolution, while not yet calling for negotiations, still marks a substantial step forward. Tabled by Austria and supported by a group of 43 co-sponsoring states, it explicitly recognises the possible negative consequences of autonomous weapon systems, including the risk of triggering an arms race, lowering the threshold for conflict, and facilitating proliferation to non-state actors. It also underscores the imperative of ensuring on-going, meaningful human control over the use of force in conflict situations where the potential for human casualties exists.

In an age where technology has blurred the lines between human decision-making and machine algorithms, preserving human judgment and empathy in matters of life and death is paramount. The continuous advancement of technology, notably in the domain of autonomous weapons, has disrupted established ethical norms and human control over warfare. With these highly advanced machines becoming increasingly integral to military tactics, it is vital to acknowledge the pressing requirement for significant human supervision and intervention.

The essence of the recent UNGA resolution lies in its acknowledgement of the fundamental principle of continued human control over autonomous systems. It recognises the inherent dangers of fully autonomous systems and relinquishing decisions to algorithms devoid of empathy, compassion, and moral judgment. The stark reality is that autonomous weapons, devoid of human intervention, can lead to unforeseen consequences, magnifying the risks of conflicts spiralling out of control.

Beyond the cinematic allure of sleek robots and intelligent machines, the true face of autonomous weapons is a disconcerting one. These systems lack the intricate tapestry of human experiences that shape our understanding of ethical conduct in times of war. Autonomous weapons, by their very nature, operate in a morally grey zone, devoid of the ethical compass that guides human soldiers in the heat of battle. The erosion of these ethical norms not only undermines the principles of humanity but also erodes the trust that nations place in each other during times of conflict.

Another alarming risk associated with autonomous weapons is the potential for unintended escalation. In the absence of human judgment, these autonomous systems can misinterpret situations and respond maliciously to ambiguous signals. The lack of human intervention and the speed at which autonomous weapons operate increases the likelihood of unintended escalation.

Autonomy in weaponry also introduces new security vulnerabilities as these sophisticated machines, reliant on intricate algorithms and interconnected networks, are more susceptible to hacking and exploitation. Malicious actors, ranging from hostile states to non-state groups, could potentially gain control over these weapons, turning them against their creators or using them for other nefarious purposes. This not only endangers national security but also undermines the very technology which nations are investing in for their defence, creating a paradoxical situation where advancements in technology become a liability.

Moreover, there is also the risk of exacerbating existing power imbalances on the global stage. Nations with advanced technological capabilities could wield these weapon systems as tools of dominance, further marginalising those with limited access. This power disparity not only perpetuates existing inequalities but also destabilises international relations, creating an environment ripe for conflicts based on asymmetrical power dynamics.


Crafting and eventually adopting effective regulations for autonomous weapons, thus becomes a paramount necessity to address all these and other inter-related challenges. While innovation will continue to propel the world into the future, it is essential to ensure that the very essence of humanity is not sacrificed at the altar of progress. Striking this balance requires international collaboration, transparency, and a shared commitment to upholding human dignity in the face of evolving warfare.

The UNGA resolution serves as a pivotal starting point as well as a call to action that transcends borders. It may compel states to confront the ethical quandaries posed by autonomous weapons, urging them to safeguard the values that define civilisation. As the world moves forward, it is incumbent upon all states to ensure that decisions involving human lives must always have human oversight. Only by doing so can we navigate the challenges of this new era and build a future where humanity and technology can coexist harmoniously.

The adoption of this resolution signifies not just a milestone in international diplomacy but also a beacon of hope for a world where innovation can co-exist harmoniously with ethics and empathy. It is the collective responsibility of the international community to ensure that this path leads to a future where humanity’s values remain at the heart of technological progress. Preserving human judgment and empathy is not just a moral obligation; it is a fundamental requirement to ensure the responsible use of these powerful tools.


About Nida Shahid 4 Articles
Nidaa Shahid completed an MPhil in Defence and Strategic Studies from Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. She is a former research fellow of King's College London, UK as well as James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies, Monterey and Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, U.S.

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